Nursing - blanchable Skin
Skin, Hair And Nails Ch. 8 - Nursing 366 with Hubbell at
OBJECTIVE:To provide data needed to design an intervention trial to prevent or treat skin disorders in a high risk, incontinent nursing home population.
DESIGN: The incidence and prevalence of nine common skin disorders were measured prospectively over a 60-day period using trained observers. Urinary and fecal incontinence frequency were measured over 24 hours, and mobility was measured with subjects both in and out of bed. Direct measures of skin moisture were taken with an impedance device in the presence and absence of urinary incontinence. Multiple regression analyses were used to relate the incontinence and mobility variables to the presence and development of skin disorders.
SETTING: Four nursing homes.
PARTICIPANTS: One hundred incontinent nursing home residents.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prospective measures of nine common skin disorders and skin moisture in four perineal regions under continent and incontinent conditions.
RESULTS: All subjects had at least one skin condition identified during the 60-day data collection period. The most commonly observed skin condition was blanchable erythema, which occurred in 94% of the subjects, predominantly in the front and back regions that were closest to the urethra and rectum. Twenty-one percent of residents developed either a Stage 1 (nonblanchable erythema) or 2 pressure ulcer. All skin conditions were transient when measured every 3 weeks with the exception of blanchable erythema, which showed stability. Stage 3 or greater pressure ulcers and edema were not observed, and interrater reliability for the measure of papules was poor. Measures of urinary and fecal incontinence severity were correlated with blanchable erythema severity, and blanchable erythema and low bed mobility were predictive of pressure ulcer severity. Blanchable erythema severity was also predictive of Stage 1 and 2 pressure ulcers. Skin moisture levels in the back perineal farthest from the rectum (peripheral) were affected most by urinary incontinence.
CONCLUSION: A trial to detect a 50% preventive effect on Stage 1 and 2 pressure ulcers would require that 167 subjects be monitored for 60 days. The transient nature of the skin effects require that skin be monitored at least once a week. Because blanchable erythema is so prevalent and appears to be associated with more severe skin conditions, it would make an excellent marker for beginning to assess the potential preventive effects of various interventions on the incidence of pressure ulcers and other related skin disorders in incontinent patients. It is likely that the back area peripheral to the urethra and rectum would experience the greatest benefit from an intervention trial to reduce moisture caused by incontinence.
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